Ocorreu um erro neste gadget

quinta-feira, 22 de novembro de 2012

HAPPY THANKSGIVING!


                          HAPPY THANKSGIVING!


Saiba o que é o Dia de Ação de Graças e porque é comemorado nos EUA:

On the fourth Thursday of November, Americans celebrate Thanksgiving, a national holiday honoring the early settlers and their harvest feast known as the first Thanksgiving.

Native Americans
Long before settlers came to the East Coast of the United States, the area was inhabited by many Native American tribes. The area surrounding the site of the first Thanksgiving, now known as southe
astern Massachusetts and eastern Rhode Island had been the home of the Wampanoag people for over 12,000 years, and had been visited by other European settlers before the arrival of the Mayflower. The native people knew the land well and had fished, hunted, and harvested for thousands of generations.

The Settlers
The people who comprised the Plymouth Colony were a group of English Protestants who wanted to break away from the Church of England. These ‘separatists’ initially moved to Holland and after 12 years of financial problems, they received funding from English merchants to sail across the Atlantic to settle in a ‘New World.' A ship carrying 101 men, women, and children spent 66 days traveling the Atlantic Ocean, intending to land where New York City is now located. Due to the windy conditions, the group had to cut their trip short and settle at what is now called Cape Cod.

Settling and Exploring
As the Puritans prepared for winter, they gathered anything they could find, including Wampanoag supplies.

One day, Samoset, a leader of the Abenaki, and Tisquantum (better known as Squanto) visited the settlers. Squanto was a Wampanoag who had experience with other settlers and knew English. Squanto helped the settlers grow corn and use fish to fertilize their fields. After several meetings, a formal agreement was made between the sttlers and the native people and they joined together to protect each other from other tribes in March of 1621.

The Celebration
One day that fall, four settlers were sent to hunt for food for a harvest celebration. The Wampanoag heard gunshots and alerted their leader, Massasoit, who thought the English might be preparing for war. Massasoit visited the English settlement with 90 of his men to see if the war rumor was true. Soon after their visit, the Native Americans realized that the English were only hunting for the harvest celebration. Massasoit sent some of his own men to hunt deer for the feast and for three days, the English and native men, women, and children ate together. The meal consisted of deer, corn, shellfish, and roasted meat, far from today's traditional Thanksgiving feast.

They played ball games, sang, and danced. Much of what most modern Americans eat on Thanksgiving was not available in 1621.

Although prayers and thanks were probably offered at the 1621 harvest gathering, the first recorded religious Thanksgiving Day in Plymouth happened two years later in 1623. On this occasion, the colonists gave thanks to God for rain after a two-month drought.

The Myths
Believe it or not, the settlers didn't have silver buckles on their shoes. Nor did they wear somber, black clothing. Their attire was actually bright and cheerful. Many portrayals of this harvest celebration also show the Native Americans wearing woven blankets on their shoulders and large, feathered headdresses, which is not true. The Englishmen didn’t even call themselves Pilgrims.

Modern Thanksgiving
In the 19th century, the modern Thanksgiving holiday started to take shape. In 1846, Sarah Josepha Hale, editor of a magazine called Godley’s Lady’s Book, campaigned for an annual national thanksgiving holiday after a passage about the harvest gathering of 1621 was discovered and incorrectly labeled as the first Thanksgiving.

It wasn't until 1863, when President Abraham Lincoln declared two national Thanksgivings; one in August to commemorate the Battle of Gettysburg and the other in November to give thanks for "general blessings."

Native Americans and Thanksgiving
The peace between the Native Americans and settlers lasted for only a generation. The Wampanoag people do not share in the popular reverence for the traditional New England Thanksgiving. For them, the holiday is a reminder of betrayal and bloodshed. Since 1970, many native people have gathered at the statue of Massasoit in Plymouth, Massachusetts each Thanksgiving Day to remember their ancestors and the strength of the Wampanoag.

domingo, 15 de abril de 2012

Imposto de renda... Vocabulário em inglês.

Nessa época do ano temos uma obrigação bem chata a cumprir: a famigerada declaração de imposto de renda (income tax return). E, por mais que seja um assunto chato, existem termos que porventura podemos precisar usar em inglês, seja em ambiente profissional ou mesmo para comentar com amigos estrangeiros e/ou colegas de estudo: “passei o final de semana fazendo a declaração”, “recebi uma mega restituição e vou usar a grana pra viajar o mundo” são alguns exemplos.
Só não vale fazer “maracutaia” (to fraud it) pra aumentar a restituição, heim! De fato, a carga tributária (tax burden) brasileira é pesadíssima, mas ainda acredito que a honestidade fala mais alto (honesty prevails). Se servir de consolo, o IR brasileiro não é o maior do mundo, na Suécia a alíquota chega aos 58,2%, na Alemanha o valor também passa dos 50%. Claro que lá o cidadão vê isso revertido na qualidade dos serviços públicos, mas essa é outra história.
Aproveito para dar um alerta aos intercambistas leitores do blog: não sei a respeito de outros países, mas quem estudou inglês nos Estados Unidos no ano de 2011 precisa verificar se está obrigado ou não a fazer a declaração (whether he is required or not to file) por conta do período em que residiu no país. A intercambista “Baunilha”, que mantém um blog no site da STB, fez um post bem completo e explicativo sobre o assunto. Vale a pena dar uma olhada (It’s worth taking a look at this): “Atenção estudantes nos EUA – enviem os formulários de imposto até 17 de abril”.
Voltando ao vocabulário, vejam alguns termos sobre o assunto:
1 – Fazer/entregar a declaração – to file the income tax return
Every year millions of people file federal income tax returns even though they are not required to.
Todos os anos, milhões de pessoas declaram imposto de renda mesmo não sendo obrigadas a fazê-lo.
2 – Declarar alguém como dependente – to claim someone as a dependent
Is there an age limit on claiming my child as a dependent?
Há limite de idade para declarar meu filho como dependente?
3 – Receber restituição – to receive a tax refund
This year she received a tax refund instead of having to pay.
Este ano ela teve imposto a restituir em vez de a pagar.
4 – Ser dedutível – to be deductible
The cost of drugs is deductible only for drugs that require a prescription.
Somente o custo com medicamentos que requerem prescrição médica é dedutível (da base do imposto).
5 – Cair na malha fina – to get audited by the federal revenue service
Keep all supporting documentation. No receipts equals no deduction if you get audited.
Mantenha toda a documentação suporte. A falta de recibos resulta em impossibilidade de dedução dos valores caso você caia na malha fina.
6 – Fazer uma declaração retificadora – to file a correct form
If you list an incorrect figure you will need to file a correct form.
Se você listar um valor incorreto você terá que fazer uma declaração retificadora.
Outros termos relacionados ao assunto podem (e devem) ser adicionados no campo de comentários abaixo.
I hope you all get a very large tax return!

sábado, 3 de março de 2012

Situações de emergência médica a bordo:



✈Infarto = Heart attack (or cardiac arrest)
✈Enjôo = motion sickness
✈Ataque epilético = epileptic attack
✈Cortes pequenos (causados por objetos que caem durante turbulência) = minor cuts (caused by fallen objects due to turbulence)
✈Reação alérgica = alergic reaction (or anaphylactic shock)
✈Hipoglicemia = hypoglycaemic episode
✈Pressão alta = high blood pressure
✈Parto prematuro = premature childbirth



domingo, 5 de fevereiro de 2012

Present Perfect ( explicado em português...)



Lembrem-se que ele se chama Present Perfect por uma razão: tem sempre algo relacionado com o presente de quem fala ou da situação da qual se fala. Comecemos com alguns exemplos:
  • I have lost my car keys. (Perdi as chaves do meu carro. Não estou com elas agora, portanto não posso entrar no carro.)
  • Have you done your homework? (Fizeram a tarefa? – Pergunta a professora querendo ver a tarefa feita agora.)
  • I have broken a glass. (Quebrei um copo. Há cacos de vidro por todos os lugares.)
  • Why can´t John buy that new car? – He has lost his job. (Por que John não pode comprar aquele carro novo? – Ele perdeu seu emprego. Agora não tem dinheiro para comprar o carro.)
Viram a conexão entre o passado e o presente?
Let´s continue …
O Present Perfect também é usado com uma série de advérbios:
  • JUST: indica que a ação acabou de acontecer. He has just finished doing his homework. (Ele acabou de terminar de fazer sua tarefa.)
  • EVER: alguma vez na vida. Have you ever gone hiking in the mountains? (Você já foi fazer trilha nas montanhas?)
  • ALREADY: já (nas frases afirmativas). I have already been to China. (Eu já estive na China.)
  • NEVER: nunca. I have never seen such a beautiful thing. (Nunca vi coisa tão Linda.)
  • YET: 1. já (quando se espera que a resposta seja afirmativa) – Have you done the dishes yet? (Já lavou a louça? – Era esperado que você a lavasse.) – 2. ainda (em frases negativas) – No, I haven´t done the dishes yet. (Não, não lavei a louça ainda.)
  • SINCE – desde. I have been a teacher since 1992. (Sou professor desde 1992.)
  • FOR – há, por, faz. I haven´t seen him for a long time. (Não o vejo há/por/faz muito tempo.)

Mais Dicas Importantes

  1. Quando a pergunta contiver WHEN nunca use o Present Perfect, sempre use o Simple Past: When did you start studying English?
  2. O Present Perfect também é usado para indicar a quantidade de vezes que a pessoa faz algo. Por exemplo: This is the first time I´ve come here. (É a primeira vez que venho aqui.) – She hasn´t been here lately. (Ela não tem vindo aqui ultimamente.)

quinta-feira, 26 de janeiro de 2012

Present Perfect

FORM

[has/have + past participle]
Examples:
  • You have seen that movie many times.
  • Have you seen that movie many times?
  • You have not seen that movie many times.

USE 1 Unspecified Time Before Now

We use the Present Perfect to say that an action happened at an unspecified time before now. The exact time is not important. You CANNOT use the Present Perfect with specific time expressions such as: yesterday, one year ago, last week, when I was a child, when I lived in Japan, at that moment, that day, one day, etc. We CAN use the Present Perfect with unspecific expressions such as: ever, never, once, many times, several times, before, so far, already, yet, etc.
Examples:
  • have seen that movie twenty times.
  • I think I have met him once before.
  • There have been many earthquakes in California.
  • People have traveled to the Moon.
  • People have not traveled to Mars.
  • Have you read the book yet?
  • Nobody has ever climbed that mountain.
  • A: Has there ever been a war in the United States?
    B: Yes, there has been a war in the United States.

How Do You Actually Use the Present Perfect?

The concept of "unspecified time" can be very confusing to English learners. It is best to associate Present Perfect with the following topics:

TOPIC 1 Experience

You can use the Present Perfect to describe your experience. It is like saying, "I have the experience of..." You can also use this tense to say that you have never had a certain experience. The Present Perfect is NOT used to describe a specific event.
Examples:
  • have been to France.
    This sentence means that you have had the experience of being in France. Maybe you have been there once, or several times.
  • have been to France three times.
    You can add the number of times at the end of the sentence.
  • have never been to France.
    This sentence means that you have not had the experience of going to France.
  • I think I have seen that movie before.
  • He has never traveled by train.
  • Joan has studied two foreign languages.
  • A: Have you ever met him?
    B: No, I have not met him.

TOPIC 2 Change Over Time

We often use the Present Perfect to talk about change that has happened over a period of time.
Examples:
  • You have grown since the last time I saw you.
  • The government has become more interested in arts education.
  • Japanese has become one of the most popular courses at the university since the Asian studies program was established.
  • My English has really improved since I moved to Australia.

TOPIC 3 Accomplishments

We often use the Present Perfect to list the accomplishments of individuals and humanity. You cannot mention a specific time.
Examples:
  • Man has walked on the Moon.
  • Our son has learned how to read.
  • Doctors have cured many deadly diseases.
  • Scientists have split the atom.

TOPIC 4 An Uncompleted Action You Are Expecting

We often use the Present Perfect to say that an action which we expected has not happened. Using the Present Perfect suggests that we are still waiting for the action to happen.
Examples:
  • James has not finished his homework yet.
  • Susan hasn't mastered Japanese, but she can communicate.
  • Bill has still not arrived.
  • The rain hasn't stopped.

TOPIC 5 Multiple Actions at Different Times

We also use the Present Perfect to talk about several different actions which have occurred in the past at different times. Present Perfect suggests the process is not complete and more actions are possible.
Examples:
  • The army has attacked that city five times.
  • have had four quizzes and five tests so far this semester.
  • We have had many major problems while working on this project.
  • She has talked to several specialists about her problem, but nobody knows why she is sick.

Time Expressions with Present Perfect

When we use the Present Perfect it means that something has happened at some point in our lives before now. Remember, the exact time the action happened is not important.
Sometimes, we want to limit the time we are looking in for an experience. We can do this with expressions such as: in the last week, in the last year, this week, this month, so far, up to now, etc.
Examples:
  • Have you been to Mexico in the last year?
  • have seen that movie six times in the last month.
  • They have had three tests in the last week.
  • She graduated from university less than three years ago. She has worked for three different companies so far.
  • My car has broken down three times this week.

NOTICE

"Last year" and "in the last year" are very different in meaning. "Last year" means the year before now, and it is considered a specific time which requires Simple Past. "In the last year" means from 365 days ago until now. It is not considered a specific time, so it requires Present Perfect.
Examples:
  • went to Mexico last year.
    I went to Mexico in the calendar year before this one.
  • have been to Mexico in the last year.
    I have been to Mexico at least once at some point between 365 days ago and now.

USE 2 Duration From the Past Until Now (Non-Continuous Verbs)

With Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, we use the Present Perfect to show that something started in the past and has continued up until now. "For five minutes," "for two weeks," and "since Tuesday" are all durations which can be used with the Present Perfect.
Examples:
  • have had a cold for two weeks.
  • She has been in England for six months.
  • Mary has loved chocolate since she was a little girl.
Although the above use of Present Perfect is normally limited to Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, the words "live," "work," "teach," and "study" are sometimes used in this way even though they are NOT Non-Continuous Verbs.

ADVERB PLACEMENT

The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.
Examples:
  • You have only seen that movie one time.
  • Have you only seen that movie one time?

ACTIVE / PASSIVE

Examples:
  • Many tourists have visited that castle. Active
  • That castle has been visited by many tourists. Passive

segunda-feira, 16 de janeiro de 2012

13 Dicas para aumentar seu vocabulário inglês

1 – Faça imagens das palavras que você quer aprender. O cérebro funciona por meio de imagens; a prova disso é que você sonha imagens e não palavras. Portanto, se transformar em imagens as palavras a serem aprendidas, você ajuda seu cérebro a aprendê-las mais rapidamente. Veja este Picture Dictionary para ajudar em suas ilustrações.

a kiss for you i love you 13 dicas para aumentar seu vocabulário inglês
Kiss for you, I love you
2 – Cole etiquetas nos objetos de sua casa ou escritório. O vocabulário mais fácil de aprender é aquele que está relacionado às coisas que você usa e vê diariamente. Numa tira de papel, escreva a palavra inglesa a ser aprendida. Em seguida, cole essa tira no objeto correspondente (use fita adesiva). Veja aqui a lista de móveis e eletrodomésticos em inglês no Visual Webster Dictionary. Deixe as etiquetas coladas nos objetos por alguns dias ou semanas, até você ter aprendido todo o vocabulário.
3 – Faça marcações em fotos. Se você não pode etiquetar os objetos de seu escritório, tire uma foto de seu local de trabalho, imprima a foto e faça setas apontando para os objetos que você vê na foto. Na extremidade da seta, escreva a palavra inglesa correspondente. Depois que dominar esse vocabulário, faça o mesmo com fotos dos lugares por onde você passa diariamente (metrô, cinema, restaurante, museu, supermercado, campo de futebol, etc.). Monte seu próprio dicionário inglês ilustrado. Veja exemplos nosInfo Visual e Photographic Dictionary
4 – Aprenda palavras por tema. Por exemplo: móveis de uma sala, lista de frutas, partes de um carro, etc. Palavras de um mesmo grupo ajudam o cérebro a criar elos entre elas com mais facilidade.
5 – Faça lista de vocabulário inglês – inglês. Crie listas de sinônimos (high-tall) e de antônimos (good-bad). A ligação entre os sinônimos e os antônimos facilita a memorização.
6 – Aprenda o vocabulário de filme. Nos filmes, o vocabulário é sempre repetitivo. Por isso, ao ver na legenda alguma palavra inglesa desconhecida, faça uma pesquisa rápida no dicionário. Da próxima vez que a palavra pesquisada aparecer, você não só vai entendê-la mas também vai fixar essa palavra na mente. Deixe um dicionário próximo ao seu televisor.
7 – Mude o idioma de seus equipamentos para o inglês. No menu de configuração de seu celular, mude o idioma para inglês. Isso fará com que você tenha contato com esse idioma diariamente. Altere também o idioma de seu DVD, sistema operacional do computador, etc.
8 – Aprenda formação de palavras em inglês. Usos de prefixos e sufixos aumentam seu vocabulário rapidamente e de maneira muito fácil. O sufixo ER, por exemplo, é acrescentado a verbos para formar substantivos (wash (lavar) – washER (lavador)). Veja lista de prefixos e sufixos ingleses aqui.
9 – Aprenda as palavras que pesquisou em seu dicionário eletrônico. Geralmente os dicionários eletrônicos registram as 20 ou 30 últimas palavras pesquisadas. Reveja essa lista com regularidade até dominar esse conteúdo.
10 – Faça flash-cards para memorizar novas palavras. Os flash-cards garantem o aprendizado mais rápido de qualquer lista de palavras. Para saber mais sobre eles, clique em Como memorizar palavras estrangeiras rapidamente
11 – Aprenda “collocations” – “Collocations” são palavras que sempre ou quase sempre estão juntas tais como go togethergo homehave dinner. Veja mais exemplos de collocations.
12- Compre livro de aumento de vocabulário. Esses livros apresentam palavras por tema e trazem exercícios para reforçar o aprendizado.
13 – Aprenda palavra inglesa diariamente. Existem sites que enviam palavras inglesas com explicação e exemplos para seu email todos os dias. Ler as mensagens ajuda a aumentar seu vocabulário. Alguns sites que fazem isso são Webster DictionaryOxford Dictionary e, claro, nosso queridíssimo Inglês no Supermercado.
Fonte: Inglês no Supermercado

domingo, 25 de dezembro de 2011

Christmas Vocabulary ( in English).

Christmas Vocabulary




advent






















the arrival of someone or something important
Adventthe coming (or second coming) of Jesus Christ; the month leading up to Christmas
angela spiritual being acting as a messenger of God (usually shown as a human being with wings)
berrya small round fruit
Bethlehemthe small town in the Middle East believed to be the birthplace of Jesus Christ
candlea cylinder of wax with a central wick (like string) which burns to produce light
chimneya vertical pipe in a house that allows smoke and gases to escape from a fireplace (Father Christmas traditionally enters a house through its chimney)
Christthe title of Jesus (also used as His name)
Christiana person who believes in Christianity; also an adjective
Christianitythe religion based on the teachings and person of Jesus Christ
Christmasthe annual Christian festival celebrating the birth of Jesus Christ (Christmas Day is on 25 December)
Christmas cakea rich fruit cake covered with white icing, eaten at Christmas
Christmas carda greetings card that people send to friends and family at Christmas
Christmas carola religious song or popular hymn that people sing at Christmas
Christmas Day25 December, the birthday of Jesus Christ
Christmas Evethe evening or day before Christmas Day (24 December)
Christmas holidaysthe holiday period for about a week before and after Christmas Day
Christmas presenta gift or present given at Christmas
Christmas treean evergreen tree (often a spruce) that people decorate with lights and ornaments at Christmas
crackera decorated paper tube that makes a sharp noise ("crack!") and releases a small toy when two people pull it apart
decorationsomething that adds beauty; ornament
egg-noga traditional Christmas drink made of alcohol with beaten eggs and milk
Father Christmasan imaginary being who brings presents for children on the night before Christmas Day (also known as Santa Claus) - traditionally an old man with a red suit and white beard
fireplacea partly enclosed space in a house where people light a fire for warmth
frankincensea gum used for incense, one of the gifts that the three wise men gave to Jesus
golda yellow precious metal, one of the gifts that the three wise men gave to Jesus
hollyan evergreen plant with prickly dark green leaves and red berries
Jesusthe name of Christ, the central figure of Christianity (believed by Christians to be the Son of God)
Josephthe husband of Mary (the mother of Jesus)
magithe wise men from the East who brought gifts for the baby Jesus
mangera trough for food for horses or cattle (used by Mary as a cradle or bed for Jesus)
Marythe mother of Jesus
mistletoea parasitic plant with white berries, traditionally used as a Christmas decoration
myrrha gum used for perfume or incense, one of the gifts that the three wise men gave to Jesus
nativitythe birth of a person
the Nativitythe birth of Jesus Christ
nativity playa play that people perform at Christmas based on the birth of Jesus
new yearthe start of a year; the period just before and after 1 January
New Year's Day1 January
New Year's Eve31 December
ornamentan object that adds beauty to something; a decoration
presenta thing given to somebody as a gift.
reindeera deer with large antlers found in some cold climates (believed to pull the sleigh for Santa Claus or Father Christmas)
Santa Clausan imaginary being who brings presents for children on the night before Christmas Day (also known as Father Christmas) - traditionally an old man with a red suit and white beard (Santa Claus may be based in part on the historical figure of Saint Nicholas.)
shepherda person who looks after sheep
sleigha sledge or light cart on runners pulled by horses or reindeer over snow and ice
snowwater vapour from the sky that falls as white flakes and covers the ground
stara bright point in the night sky which is a large, distant incandescent body like the sun
the star of Bethlehemthe star that announced the birth of Jesus and guided the wise men to find Him
tinsela decoration consisting of thin strips of shiny metal foil, traditionally used at Christmas
turkeya bird like a large chicken, traditionally eaten at Christmas
white Christmasa Christmas with snow on the ground
Xmasabbreviation or informal term for Christmas

Christmas Expressions

  • Merry Christmas!
  • Happy Christmas
  • Happy New Year!
  • Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year!
  • Wishing you a prosperous New Year
  • All the best for the coming year
  • Seasons Greetings!